Categorical Data

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Definition:-A variable that cannot assume a numerical value but can be classified into two or more nonnumeric categories are called categorical variable or qualitative variable. The data collected on such a variable are called categorical data. It is also known as qualitative data.

Note:-Categorical data are always nominal whereas nominal data need not be categorical.
 
Example:- The status of an undergraduate college student is a qualitative variable because a student can fall into any one of four categories: freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior etc.

Other examples of Categorical variables are the gender, race, sex, age group, educational level, hair color of a person, and the make of a car, model of a car or computer, colors of cars, marital status of people etc.

Suppose there is several numbers of toys with different colors.
These toys can be classified according to their color brown, yellow, red, blue, and green as:
 
Color Number of toys
Brown 2
Yellow 5
Red 4
Blue 3
Green 6
 
Organizing and graphing Categorical data

Data set are organized into tables, and data using graphs.
·         Frequency distributions for Categorical data.
·         Relative frequency and percentage distributions.

Graphical presentation of categorical data.

·         Bar graph
·         Pie chart

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